Grinding is an abrasive machining process used for fine machining and finishing of workpieces. It can be performed manually or using grinding machines. As with all abrasive procedures, excess material is removed from the workpiece in the form of swarf. The cutting is actually performed by the edges of microscopically small hard mineral crystals in the grinding tool.
One of the most common grinding methods is the external cylindrical grinding, which is used to manufacture cylindrical and tapered workpieces such as shafts, axles and spindles. A grinding wheel is used to remove material from the workpiece circumference. In principle, differentiation is made between two methods: plunge grinding and traverse grinding. For plunge grinding, the grinding wheel is fed to the workpiece in a radial direction. For traverse grinding, the workpiece is either moved axially via the longitudinal feed of the workpiece slide along the grinding wheel or the workpiece is fixed in place and the grinding wheel moves along the workpiece. To allow for greater accuracy in clamping, workpieces are usually mounted between centers, although one-sided clamping of the workpieces is also possible.
Another type of processing is internal cylindrical grinding, which is primarily used for machining cylindrical or tapered bores. Universal cylindrical grinding machines can be equipped with an additional internal grinding spindle.
One special form of cylindrical grinding is noncircular or camshaft grinding. In addition to the workpiece rotation and the grinding wheel infeed, there is also a third, traversing movement as well.